Mahdi, who is usually mentioned by his title of Imam-i 'Asr (the
Imam of the "Period") and Sahib al-Zaman (the Lord of the Age),
is the son of the eleventh Imam. His name is the same as that of
the Holy Prophet. He was born in Samarrah in 256/868 and until
260/872 when his father was martyred, lived under his father's
care and guidance.
Hakima who was the sister of the 10th Imam (Imam Mohammad
Taqi(a.s.)) relates that she went to her nephew's (11th Imam -
Imam Hasan Askari(a.s.)) house for iftaar on the 14th of Sha'ban
255 A.H.The 11th Imam asked her to stay as his son was to be
born soon. There was no sign of pregnancy on Sayyida Narjis. The
11th Imam asked her to recite Suratul Qadr on Sayyida Narjis. At
the time of Fajr on 15th Sha'ban Sayyida Hakima heard the Sura
being recited from the womb of Sayyida Narjis. The 11th imam
told her that the birth would occur very soon.
As soon as the 12th Imam was born he did sijda and proclaimed
the oneness of Allah and the Prophet hood of the Prophet (S.A.W.)
recited the 5th aya of Suratul-Qasas
"And We intend to bestow (Our) favours upon those who are weak
in the land and make them the Imams (leaders) and make them the
On his right hand was written the 82nd aya of Suratu Bani Israel
"The truth has come and falsehood has vanished; Indeed falsehood
(is a thing by nature) vanishing". The 11th Imam only told a
handful of his most trusted believers of the birth of his son
and to a few of his household slaves.
One of the
women slaves called Naseema relates that when she went to see
the baby Imam in his cradle she greeted him with salaam and was
replied to. She then sneezed and the Imam said: "Yarhamukallah -
it is a blessing from Allah and you have 3 days immunity from
Imam(a.s.) was hidden from public view and only a few of the
elite among the Shi'ah were able to meet him. After the
martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command
went into occultation (ghaybat). Thereafter he appeared only to
his deputies (na'ib) and even then only in exceptional
(occultation) of the last Imam (a.s.)
ghaibat (occultation) was in two phase - Ghaibat-e-Sughra (minor
occultation) was for about 69 years - 260 A.H. (872 A.D.) to 329
A.H. (939 A.D.) and the Ghaibat-e-Kubra (greater occultation)
started in 329 A.H. (939 A.D.)and will continue until Allah(swt)
the 6th Imam,
Imam as-Sadiq (a.s.) states the reason of the ghaibat as
prevention against being killed.
Ishaq bin Yaqub (on authority from 12th Imam) says that all the
Imams were under oppressive rulers. Our 12th Imam is hidden in
order to rise in arms with obedience to no one.
Muhammad Yaqub Al-Kulayni has said that ghaibat is a test from
Allah to test the steadfastness of belief in Imam.
If he is to
remain in Ghaibat, what is the use of his existence?
Belief creates hope giving strength to the oppressed.
It is a deterrent for the committing of injustice as one is
always aware of the constant presence of the Imam.
Why insist on
12? Why Imamat not continued and last Imam near Quiyama to do
12th Imam's work?
For one who
is to cleanse the earth of all wrong and injustice is necessary
for him to be born near early Islam and carry pure and pristine
Islamic ideas. It is necessary to look from his vantage point at
all the upheavals in the world. Personal experience of the past
will make him fearless of the seemingly invincible superpowers
no matter how strong they are.
To make the Shias used to approaching scholars instead of Imam
himself. It started during the time of the 10th Imam who was
under almost constant house arrest in Samarra and continuing
GHAIBAT-E-SUGHRA (160 A.H. to 329 A.H.)
Ghaibut-us-Sughra, the Imam(a.s.) appointed four
deputies/representatives to represent him among the people.
After the death of the fourth deputy, the Imam(a.s.) went into
Ghaibut-e-Kubra (major occultation). This was on the 10th Shawal
329 A.H. The 4 representatives were :
1. Janabe Abu
Amr Usman Ibne Saeed Amri(a.r.)
It is said that at the age of 11 years he was a servant in the
house of the 9th Imam(a.s.) later to enjoy the confidence of
Imam. He occupied the same position of trust with the 10th and
11th Imam who told their Shias that after him they would not see
the 12th Imam and would have to obey Uthman. After the 11th
Imam's martyrdom Uthman moved to Baghdad and disguised as a
butter seller he set up the collection of khums for Imam. He
served the 12th Imam for 18 months and received a letter near
his death from Imam(a.s.) telling him to appoint his son
Mohammed as the next representative.
2. Janab Abu
Jafar Mohammad Ibne Usman Ibne Saeed Amri (a.r.)
He continued in his fathers footsteps also acting as a butter
seller. He managed to keep Imam's existence a secret from the
Abbasids until the early years of the reign of Al-Mutadid. The
rulers then started searching hard for Imam and killed countless
mu'mineen with even the slightest resemblance to Imam. Spies
were set up to probe the khums network. Imam issued an order for
Shias not to take his name nor show mas'ala of khums to anyone
until absolutely sure of them. As instructed by Imam he
appointed Husayn bin Rawh as the next representative after his
death in 305 A.H.
3. Janab Abul
Qasim Husain Ibne Rauh Nawbakhti (a.r.)
His kuniyya was Abul Qasim. His sociable nature won him respect
even from the Ahlul-Sunnah. He managed to keep his activities a
secret from the rulers whilst maintaining good relations with
them. It is to him that we address the 'ariza' to be delivered
to Imam. He served faithfully until he died in Sha'ban 326 a.h.
revealing the appointment of Ali bin Muhammad Samry after him.
4. Janab Abul
Hasan Ali Ibne Mohammad Seymouri (a.r.)
He served for only three years. A week before his death he
received a letter from the Imam(a.s.) telling him of his
forthcoming death and that there would be no representative
after him and that Imam(a.s.) was now going into Ghaibat-e-Kubra
(major occultation). Imam(a.s.) would then appear when
Allah(swt) wills it. Ali bin Muhammad Samry(a.r.) died on 15th
Sha'ban 329 A.H.
KUBRA (329 A.H. to present)
ghaibat is described by the Aimma like that of Prophet Yusuf
(A.S.) who was amongst his brothers yet they did not recognise
Imam is known to meet a believer on 3 occasions:
1. At the
time of trouble.
2. He is present at every Hajj.
3. He attends the funeral of every believer who has no religious
obligations pending on him/her e.g. Khums.
time he continues to guide. Numerous letters have been received
from him by (to quote a few) Ishaq bin Yaqub, Sheikh Mufeed...
. It is reported that 30 people all over the world meet with him
regularly. It is also reported that Jaziratul Khadra (green
islands or Bermuda Triangle) is a vast land in Imam's kingdom
occupied by a large number of Shia and governed by Imam's
Responsibilities During Ghaibat e Kubra
Pray for the
safety of Imam(a.s.) at all time.
Be in waiting for Imam(a.s.) at all times.
Give Sadaqa for Imam(a.s.).
Pray for his re-appearance.
Whenever faced with difficulty (whether small or big) ask for
assistance from Imam(a.s.).
Whenever his name is heard or recited, one should stand if
possible, send salaams on him, put hand on head and bow.
If possible perform Hajj/Umra for Imam(a.s.). (Hajj-After own
OF IMAM AL MAHDI (A.S.)
" The actual
time of appearance is only known by Allah"
However various indications have been given by our Aimma.
- It will be
the day of Friday.
- It will be the 10th of Muharram.
- The century will be an odd number.
- There will be both a solar and lunar eclipse in the month of
Ramadhan but contrary to all norms and calculations.
- A voice will be heard announcing the appearance of Imam which
will be heard by all in their own language.
- Imam Ali (a.s.) related to Sa'sa bin Sawhaan: The 12th Imam
will appear when:
There will be a loud noise from the sky with which the eardrums
- Nasibayn (Iraq) will burn on all four sides.
- Basra will be abandoned.
- Turkey will be ruled by Usmanis.
- People will usurp that which they are trusted with.
- People will 'kill' Salaa. (It will not be abandoned but its
- People will carry music in their pockets.
- The 5th , 6th and 7th Imams have said:
"A great man from the people of Qum will rise up and take a
stand. He will invite people will invite people towards the
truth. Brave people like strong mountains, not fearing fighting
and having trust in Allah will come to his help..........
Finally the enemy of Islam will withdraw.............. The rule
of Islamic Law will be established by the people themselves".
become barren of Islamic knowledge........... whilst Qum will
become the centre of Islamic Fiqh............ so much so that it
will spread throughout the world that not a single person will
remain ignorant of the message of Islam".
will be the vicegerents of the 12th Imam. Their rule will
continue and link with the appearance of the 12th Imam. They
will not entrust the rule established by them to any but Imam on
- Imam Ali
(a.s.) took Kumayl bin Ziyad to the outskirts of Kufa and showed
him where he was to be buried. He then told him that all round
his grave there would be tall buildings carrying the sign of
Shaitan on them. The sign would be called Antennae.
will appear. He will be a Jew but make himself apparent as a
Muslim. He will be supported fully by the Christian governments
and his mission will be to destroy Shias. He will offer booty to
anyone who kills a Shia. The result will be such that even
neighbours who have lived as brothers for years will kill Shias
for money. He will be finally killed by Prophet Isa (A.S.)
- Imam will
appear in Makka and his 'zahoor' will be in two stages (similar
to Prophet hood of the Prophet).
1st Stage - This will be in secret and not announced to all
(only to close followers).
2nd Stage - Open announcement on the 10th of Muharram (Ashura).
- In the
Zil-Hajjah of the preceding to Imam's appearance on Ashura, 40
momineen who will be Imam's closest companions will realise the
nearness of 'zahoor' and go for Hajj. They will not return home
and on the 15th of Zil-Hijjah they will go to the Ka'ba and cry
- One of them
will be called by Imam(a.s.), introduced and told to be the
representative of the 40. They will all meet Imam(a.s.) between
the 16th and 22nd of Zil-Hijjah. Imam will tell them that one of
them will have to announce the arrival of Imam(a.s.) at the door
of the Ka'ba but whosoever would do this would be killed
- On the 25th
Zil-Hijjah the announcement will be made and the announcer
killed (This is the blood of Nafse Zakiyya - pure soul, those
whose blood will touch the Ka'ba and who is mentioned in
His blood will be avenged 2 weeks later when Imam(a.s.) will
appear himself at the Ka'ba.
- Those who
answer the first call will be 313 in number.
- Imam's army will consist of 10.000 momineen.
- Imam will establish his government in Kufa and his treasury in
notes on the re-appearance of Imam(a.s.).
Tusi's 'Ghaybat', Abu Baseer quoted Imam Ja'fer As-Sadiq (A.S.)
"The call in the name of QAIM (i.e. Imam Al Mahdi (a.s.) ) will
be made in the night of the 23rd Ramadhan and he will make his
appearance on the day of Ashura, the day of Imam Hussain's
in his book Kamaaluddin relates from Zararah that Imam Jafer
as-Sadiq(a.s.) said "The announcer will call the name of the
Qaim(a.s.)". I asked whether this call is for a particular group
or if it is meant for everyone, Imam Jafer Sadiq(a.s.) said:
"Shaitan will not leave the people alone. He will call late in
the night and will plunge people into doubt".
In the 13th
volume of Bihar-ul-Anwar, Imam Al-Baqir(a.s.) is quoted as
saying that "The Qaim (Imam Al-Mahdi(a.s.)) will send one of his
companions to Makka and will ask him to inform them that I'm
sent by so-and-so to you and that we are the merciful Ahlul-Bayt
and the Store-house of 'Risalat' (religious guidance) and
'Khilafat' and we are the progeny of Muhammad(pbuh&hf) and from
the time that the Prophet of Islam(pbuh&hf) left this world
until now, we've been oppressed and deprived and our rights have
been usurped. So we call you to befriend us. When that young man
will utter these words, he will be caught and beheaded between
'Rukn' and 'madam' (in Masjidul Haram) and this young man is the
'Nafse Zaki'.......... And between the death of the 'Nafse Zaki'
and the re-appearance of Imam Al-Mahdi (A.S.) there will not be
a gap of fifteen nights".
heralding the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a.s)
Muhammed (saws) has said:
"Even if the
entire duration of the world’s existence has already been
exhausted and only one day is left before Doomsday, Allah will
expand that day to such length of time as to accommodate the
kingdom of a person from my Ahlul-Bayt who will be called by
name. He will fill out the earth with and justice as it will
have been full of injustice and tyranny (by then)"
Hadith, it is clear to every Muslim that the twelfth Imam will
reappear when this world is full of sins and injustice.
many signs mentioned by the Masumeen (a.s) on the reappearance
of the 12th Imam. It is reported in Biharul Anwar that after the
last pilgrimage the Prophet made, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.)
stood near the Kaaba, and called his people to listen to him.
The Prophet said: “listen to me carefully so that you transmit
these words of mine to those who are absent today.” The Prophet
began, “My people, a time will come when kings and rulers will
be tyrannical.” The Prophet also said that the payment of Zakat
will be stopped.
the Masumeen(a.s), Muslim countries will seek aid from non
Muslim countries. This is already evident in a number of Muslim
countries. Another prediction that is come true is that 60
impostors will claim to be Prophets. By their attractiveness,
their persuasion, and their personality, they will misguide the
people. 58 false Prophets have already emerged since the days of
the Prophet (s.a.w.). We have only two more to witness.
reported in Qayamat-e-Sughra citing “Oqdatud-Durr” that Hazrat
Amir(a.s) has said that the Mahdi will not appear until
one-third of the world population will die by being killed and
one-third will die as a result of epidemics.
Signs Heralding the Appearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a.s)
There is a
Hadith from Imam Muhammed Baqir (a.s) that for three or seven
consecutive days, one will see reddish yellow fire raging in the
emerge in Palestine, where he will start a revolt in the month
of Rajab. He will be an uncompassionate rebel and his rule will
last for eight consecutive months. He will conquer and rule
Egypt for four consecutive months. Sufiani will conquer Tunisia,
Algeria, Morocco, Jordan, and Syria. Sufiani has been
specifically described by Aimma A.S. as an ugly, blistered,
green-eyed, cross-eyed person who will be an enemy of the
friends of the Ahlul-Bait. Imam Ali (a.s) has said that
Sufiani’s hatred of the devotees of the Ahlul-Bait will be such
that any person named Ali, Fatema, Hassan, Hussein, Zainab,
Ruquaiya will be arrested and beheaded straight away without
further investigations. Sufiani will rip the Mimber of the Holy
Prophet (s.a.w.). The holy house of the Prophet which contains
his grave will be pulled and used as a stable. Horses will be
tied in that Holy place.
then decide to attack Makka. His purpose would be to demolish
the Holy Kaaba and kill the entire population of Makka.
Sufiani’s army will set out via Baghdad but, as Allah would have
it, when they get between Medina and Makka, in the desert of
Baida, suddenly one night they will hear a voice from the sky
which will say, “O Baida eat up the entire army of Sufiani.” It
is said that the entire army numbering 100,000 persons will be
swallowed up by the earth, except for two. The two who will be
spared will suddenly encounter an angel. He will slap both of
them turning their faces right round, looking behind instead of
front. And that will be the time when Imam al-Mahdi (a.s) will
already have reappeared in Makka. The Imam will establish his
authority in the Holy Mosque at Makka in the Haram. The angel
will then order one of them calling him Bashir. “O Bashir, go
straight to Makka, into the Haram and inform the Imam that
Sufiani’s army has been swallowed up by the land. The other
called Nazir will be ordered to go to Sufiani and tell him that
the Imam has already appeared. He should proceed straight to
Makka and declare allegiance to him.
prepare to attack the Imam but will not have enough courage. The
Imam will catch Sufiani in Jerusalem and will kill him.
(a.s) has said that nine definite signs will precede the
emergence of Hazrat Mahdi (a.s). These nine signs are:
Dajaal will emerge.
A loud voice will be heard from the sky.
Sufiani will appear and wage a fierce war.
The army of Sufiani will be swallowed by a sudden opening
of the land between
Makka and Medina in the desert of Baida.
A revered wise saint will be murdered in Makka. (This
saint is to be a Hashimite descent.)
A Seyyid descendant of Imam Hassan (a.s) will emerge with
The army of Seyyid-e-Hassan and an image of a man will
appear in the sky opposite the sun.
There will be two eclipses in the holy month of Ramadhan
contrary to the normal order and calculation and the eclipse of
On three occasions a loud voice from the sky will be
heard in the holy month of Ramadhan.
Prophets(pbut) will join the Imam(a.s.)
Hazrat Khizr, Hazrat Ilias, and Hazrat Idris(pbut) will give
allegiance to the Imam(a.s.) when he reapers. Also Hazrat
Jibrael(a.s.) will announce 313 companions of the Imam(a.s.).
These 313 companions will be people of eminent piety, great
knowledge and absolutely steadfast in their determination and
faith towards the Imam(a.s.). Another 1000 people will be in the
army of the Imam(a.s.). These people will fight battles and kill
enemies like Dajjal, who will appear from India. Dajjal will
have the musical tunes with him. Then the Imam(a.s.) will lead
the prayers, Hazrat Isa(pbuh) will be behind him.
Lets us all
pray for the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi(a.s).